Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 Mar;26(2):403-8.


Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, the granulation formation was also significantly reduced the most by 28.52% in the high dose groups compared with the control group (P <0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α in the blood were reduced in the treated groups. The essential oils from extracts of E. purpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albumins
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspirin / pharmacology
  • Cotton Fiber
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Distillation
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Echinacea / chemistry*
  • Edema / chemically induced
  • Edema / prevention & control*
  • Egg Proteins
  • Flowers
  • Granuloma, Foreign-Body / blood
  • Granuloma, Foreign-Body / etiology
  • Granuloma, Foreign-Body / immunology
  • Granuloma, Foreign-Body / prevention & control*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Interleukin-2 / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Oils, Volatile / isolation & purification
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Oils / isolation & purification
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Xylenes


  • Albumins
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Egg Proteins
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-2
  • Interleukin-6
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Xylenes
  • Aspirin