Modern concepts concerning the origin of the heartbeat

Physiology (Bethesda). 2013 Mar;28(2):74-92. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00054.2012.


Physiological processes governing the heart beat have been under investigation for several hundred years. Major advances have been made in the recent past. A review of the present paradigm is presented here, including a look back at important steps that led us to where we are today, alongside a glimpse into the exciting future of pacemaker research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Clocks / physiology*
  • Heart / physiology*
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans