Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) are complementary imaging modalities, the combination of which can provide clinicians with a wealth of information to detect retinal diseases, monitor disease progression, or assess new therapies. Adaptive optics (AO) is a tool that enables correction of wavefront distortions from ocular aberrations. We have developed a multimodal adaptive optics system (MAOS) for high-resolution multifunctional use in a variety of research and clinical applications. The system integrates both OCT and SLO imaging channels into an AO beam path. The optics and hardware were designed with specific features for simultaneous SLO/OCT output, for high-fidelity AO correction, for use in humans, primates, and small animals, and for efficient location and orientation of retinal regions of interest. The MAOS system was tested on human subjects and rodents. The design, performance characterization, and initial representative results from the human and animal studies are presented and discussed.