Chronic inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. Experimental studies have demonstrated the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques caused by inflammation. Here, we report the inhibitory effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) on atherosclerotic inflammation. pLTA inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells and alleviated THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC by down-regulation of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-I), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The inhibitory effect of pLTA was mediated by inhibition of NF-κB and activation of MAP kinases. Inhibition of monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the arterial lumen was shown in pLTA-injected ApoE(-/-) mice, which was concurrent with inhibition of MMP-9 and preservation of CD31 production. The antiinflammatory effect mediated by pLTA decreased expression of atherosclerotic markers such as COX-2, Bax, and HSP27 and also cell surface receptors such as TLR4 and CCR7. Together, these results underscore the role of pLTA in suppressing atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and will help in identifying targets with therapeutic potential against pathogen-mediated atherogenesis.