Serum vitamin D metabolites in colorectal cancer patients receiving cholecalciferol supplementation: correlation with polymorphisms in the vitamin D genes

Horm Cancer. 2013 Aug;4(4):242-50. doi: 10.1007/s12672-013-0139-9. Epub 2013 Feb 28.


Cholecalciferol (D(3)) supplementation results in variable increases in serum 25(OH)D(3) levels, however, the influence of genetic polymorphisms on these variable responses is unclear. We measured serum 25(OH)D(3), 24,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1,25(OH)2D(3) and VDBP levels in 50 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients before and during 2,000 IU daily oral D(3) supplementation for six months and in 263 archived CRC serum samples. Serum PTH levels and PBMC 24-OHase activity were also measured during D(3) supplementation. TagSNPs in CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, VDR, and GC genes were genotyped in all patients, and the association between these SNPs and serum vitamin D(3) metabolites levels before and after D(3) supplementation was analyzed. The mean baseline serum 25(OH)D(3) level was less than 32 ng/mL in 65 % of the 313 CRC patients. In the 50 patients receiving D(3) supplementation, serum levels of 25(OH)D(3) increased (p = 0.008), PTH decreased (p = 0.036) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), VDBP levels and PBMC 24-OHase activity were unchanged. GC SNP rs222016 was associated with high 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels at baseline while rs4588 and rs2282679 were associated with lower 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels both before and after D(3) supplementation. CYP2R1 rs12794714 and rs10500804 SNPs were significantly associated with low 25(OH)D(3) levels after supplementation but not with baseline 25(OH)D(3). Our results show that D(3) supplementation increased 25(OH)D(3) levels in all patients. GC rs4588 and rs2283679 SNPs were associated with increased risk of vitamin D(3) insufficiency and suboptimal increase in 25(OH)D(3) levels after D(3) supplementation. Individuals with these genotypes may require higher D(3) supplementation doses to achieve vitamin D(3) sufficiency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacokinetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / blood
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / complications*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / enzymology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics*
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / metabolism
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / genetics*
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein / blood
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein / genetics*
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage
  • Vitamins / pharmacokinetics*


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein
  • Vitamins
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • CYP24A1 protein, human
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase