Clinical relevance of the ESKAPE pathogens

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Mar;11(3):297-308. doi: 10.1586/eri.13.12.


In recent years, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has highlighted a faction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) - acronymically dubbed 'the ESKAPE pathogens' - capable of 'escaping' the biocidal action of antibiotics and mutually representing new paradigms in pathogenesis, transmission and resistance. This review aims to consolidate clinically relevant background information on the ESKAPE pathogens and provide a contemporary summary of bacterial resistance, alongside pertinent microbiological considerations necessary to face the mounting threat of antimicrobial resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Bacterial Infections / physiopathology*
  • Bacterial Infections / transmission
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Cross Infection / physiopathology*
  • Cross Infection / transmission*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial* / genetics
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / classification
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / classification
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / drug effects*
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / pathogenicity
  • Humans


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents