Long-term supplementation with a cystine-based antioxidant delays loss of muscle mass in aging

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul;68(7):749-59. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gls334. Epub 2013 Mar 4.


Oxidative stress increases with age and is postulated to be a major causal factor for sarcopenia in aging. Here, we examined whether the administration of a cystine-based antioxidant (F1) can alleviate/delay age-specific changes in skeletal muscles. C57BL6 male mice aged 17 months (middle aged) were fed with normal diet with or without supplementation of F1 (3 mg/kg food) for 6 months. Compared with young (5 months old) mice old mice exhibited increased markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle cell apoptosis and decreased muscle weight. These age-related changes were further associated with inactivation of adenosine-5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increased lipogenesis, activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and decreased expression of Delta 1, phospho-Akt, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in aged skeletal muscle. Such alterations were significantly prevented by F1. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of F1 to attenuate loss of muscle mass associated with aging.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Mice; Muscle cell apoptosis; Oxidative stress; Sarcopenia..

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / drug effects
  • Aging*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cystine / metabolism
  • Cystine / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / drug effects
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Sarcopenia / drug therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antioxidants
  • Cystine
  • AMPK alpha1 subunit, mouse
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases