SIOP CNS GCT 96: final report of outcome of a prospective, multinational nonrandomized trial for children and adults with intracranial germinoma, comparing craniospinal irradiation alone with chemotherapy followed by focal primary site irradiation for patients with localized disease

Neuro Oncol. 2013 Jun;15(6):788-96. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/not019. Epub 2013 Mar 3.


Background: We conducted a nonrandomized international study for intracranial germinoma that compared chemotherapy followed by local radiotherapy with reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) alone, to determine whether the combined treatment regimen produced equivalent outcome and avoided irradiation beyond the primary tumor site(s).

Methods: Patients with localized germinoma received either CSI or 2 courses of carboplatin and etoposide alternating with etoposide and ifosfamide, followed by local radiotherapy. Metastatic patients received CSI with focal boosts to primary tumor and metastatic sites, with the option to be preceded with chemotherapy.

Results: Patients with localized germinoma (n = 190) received either CSI alone (n = 125) or combined therapy (n = 65), demonstrating no differences in 5-year event-free or overall survival, but a difference in progression-free survival (0.97 ± 0.02 vs 0.88 ± 0.04; P = .04). Seven of 65 patients receiving combined treatment experienced relapse (6 with ventricular recurrence outside the primary radiotherapy field), and only 4 of 125 patients treated with CSI alone experienced relapse (all at the primary tumor site). Metastatic patients (n = 45) had 0.98 ± 0.023 event-free and overall survival.

Conclusions: Localized germinoma can be treated with reduced dose CSI alone or with chemotherapy and reduced-field radiotherapy. The pattern of relapse suggests inclusion of ventricles in the radiation field. Reduced-dose craniospinal radiation alone is effective in metastatic disease.

Keywords: chemotherapy; intracranial germinoma; progression-free survival; reduced radiotherapy dose; treatment-related symptoms.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Brain Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • Carboplatin / administration & dosage
  • Chemoradiotherapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Etoposide / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Germinoma / mortality*
  • Germinoma / pathology
  • Germinoma / therapy
  • Humans
  • Ifosfamide / administration & dosage
  • International Agencies
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult


  • Etoposide
  • Carboplatin
  • Ifosfamide