In mammalians, toll-like receptors (TLR) signal-transduction pathways induce the expression of a variety of immune-response genes, including inflammatory cytokines. It is therefore plausible to assume that TLRs are mediators in glial cells triggering the release of cytokines that ultimately kill DA neurons in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (PD). Accordingly, recent data indicate that TLR4 is up-regulated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in a mouse model of PD. Here, we wished to evaluate the role of TLR4 in the acute mouse MPTP model of PD: TLR4-deficient mice and wild-type littermates control mice were used for the acute administration way of MPTP or a corresponding volume of saline. We demonstrate that TLR4-deficient mice are less vulnerable to MPTP intoxication than wild-type mice and display a decreased number of Iba1+ and MHC II+ activated microglial cells after MPTP application, suggesting that the TLR4 pathway is involved in experimental PD.