Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that share similar clinical features and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy. An improved understanding of their molecular bases has led to more accurate definitions of the clinical features associated with known subtypes. Knowledge of disease-specific complications, implementation of anticipatory care, and medical advances have changed the standard of care, with an overall improvement in the clinical course, survival, and quality of life of affected people. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of several disorders and the availability of preclinical models are leading to several new experimental approaches, some of which are already in clinical trials. In this Seminar, we provide a comprehensive review that integrates clinical manifestations, molecular pathogenesis, diagnostic strategy, and therapeutic developments.