Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2013 May;97(5):980-9.
doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.047563. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Contribution of Gastroenteropancreatic Appetite Hormones to Protein-Induced Satiety

Randomized Controlled Trial

Contribution of Gastroenteropancreatic Appetite Hormones to Protein-Induced Satiety

Anita Belza et al. Am J Clin Nutr. .


Background: Effects of protein intake on appetite-regulating hormones and their dynamics are unclear.

Objectives: We investigated the satiating effects of meals with varying protein contents and whether there was an effect of dose on appetite-regulating hormones and appetite ratings.

Design: Twenty-five men [mean ± SD age: 30.0 ± 8.7 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.9 ± 4.7] participated in the 3-way, randomized, double-blind crossover study. Test meals were isocaloric with 30% of energy from fat and protein content adjusted at the expense of carbohydrate. Test meals were normal protein (NP; 14% of energy from protein), medium-high protein (MHP; 25% of energy from protein), and high protein (HP, 50% of energy from protein). Appetite ratings and blood samples were assessed every 0.5 h for 4 h. An ad libitum lunch was served 4 h after the meal.

Results: Protein increased dose-dependently glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) 3-36, and glucagon; MHP produced 10%, 7%, and 47% greater responses, respectively; and HP produced 20%, 14%, and 116% greater responses, respectively, than did NP (P < 0.03). Compared with NP, HP increased insulin and cholecystokinin and decreased ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P < 0.05). Satiety and fullness dose-dependently increased by 7% and 6% for MHP and 16% and 19% for HP compared with NP (P < 0.001). Hunger and prospective consumption dose-dependently decreased by 15% and 13% for MHP and by 25% and 26% for HP compared with NP (P < 0.0003). There was a combined effect of GLP-1 and PYY 3-36 (P = 0.03) next to the additive effect of GLP-1 (P = 0.006) on the composite appetite score. No difference was shown in ad libitum energy intake.

Conclusion: Protein dose-dependently increased satiety and GLP-1, PYY 3-36, and glucagon, which may, at least in part, be responsible for the satiety-stimulating effect of protein. This trial was registered at as NCT01561235.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 41 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

Associated data