Effect of calcium glucarate on beta-glucuronidase activity and glucarate content of certain vegetables and fruits

Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1990 Apr;43(2):83-92. doi: 10.1016/0885-4505(90)90012-p.


Glucarate is normally present in tissues and body fluids and is in equilibrium with D-glucaro-1,4-lactone, a natural inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase activity. Dietary calcium glucarate, a sustained-release from of glucarate, elevates the blood level of D-glucaro-1,4-lactone which suppresses blood and tissue beta-glucuronidase activity. A single dose of CaG (4.5 mmole/kg body weight) inhibited beta-glucuronidase activity in serum and liver, lung, and intestinal microsomes by 57, 44, 37, and 39%, respectively. A chronic administration of calcium glucarate (4% in diet) also decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in intestinal and liver microsomes. Maximal inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activity in serum was observed from 12 noon to 2:00 PM. In contrast, maximum inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activity in intestinal and liver microsomes occurred during mornings, although a secondary depression in intestinal microsomes also occurred around 4 PM. A 4% calcium glucarate supplemented diet also inhibited beta-glucuronidase activity by 70% and 54%, of the bacterial flora obtained from proximal (small intestine) and distal (colon) segments of intestine, respectively. Due to the potential effect of dietary glucarate on net glucuronidation and on other metabolic pathways, glucaric acid levels in various foods were determined. The glucaric acid content varied from a low of 1.12-1.73 mg/100 g for broccoli and potatoes to a high of 4.53 mg/100 g for oranges.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Enterobacteriaceae / enzymology
  • Female
  • Fruit / analysis*
  • Glucaric Acid / analysis*
  • Glucaric Acid / pharmacology*
  • Glucuronidase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Glucuronidase / blood
  • Glucuronidase / metabolism
  • Intestines / enzymology
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Lung / enzymology
  • Microsomes / enzymology
  • Microsomes, Liver / enzymology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Sugar Acids / analysis*
  • Sugar Acids / pharmacology*
  • Vegetables / analysis*


  • Sugar Acids
  • Glucuronidase
  • Glucaric Acid