The Livistona chinensis seed has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of cancer. However, the precise mechanism of its anticancer activity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ethanol extract of Livistona chinensis seed (EELC) against tumor growth using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse xenograft model and an HCC cell line, HepG2, and investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating its biological activities. We found that EELC inhibited HCC growth both in vivo and in vitro, without apparent signs of toxicity. In addition, EELC treatment resulted in the induction of HCC cell apoptosis. Moreover, EELC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and increase in the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our findings suggest that promotion of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells may be one of the mechanisms by which the Livistona chinensis seed is effective in cancer treatment.