Cerebral circulation is tightly regulated by vasoactive substances. There is a delicate balance among vasoconstriction and vasodilation factors. During ischemia/stroke, cerebral blood flow autoregulation may be compromised triggering hyperemia (early phase) or hypoperfusion (late phase or post-ischemia) deranging cerebral blood flow that can lead to subsequent neuronal cell death due to blood flow abnormalities. Traditional vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide have been well-documented to provide vasodilation and neuroprotection in the ischemic brain. An emerging field is the identification of fatty acids (polyunsaturated or saturated) that can lead to vasodilation possibly causing neuroprotection. This review investigates fatty acids such as palmitic acid methyl ester, α-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid as novel vasoactive substances that can modulate cerebral blood flow as well as offer neuroprotection after ischemia.