Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein released by leukocytes, is one of the most widely studied during the last decades molecule that plays a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress in the cellular level. It has become increasingly recognized that MPO performs a very important role as part of the innate immune system through the formation of microbicidal reactive oxidants, whilst it affects the arterial endothelium with a number of mechanisms that include modification of net cellular cholesterol flux and impairment of Nitric Oxide (NO)-induced vascular relaxation. In that way, MPO is implicated into both the formation and propagation of atheromatosis and there is substantial evidence that it also promotes ischemia through destabilization of the vulnerable plaque. Numerous studies have added information on the notion that MPO and its oxidant products are part of the inflammatory cascade initiated by endothelial injury and they are significantly overproduced at the site of arterial inflammation. Subsequent studies achieved quantification of this observation showing significant elevations of the systemic levels of MPO in a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease scenarios with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure being the most studied. This review highlights key-aspects of MPO's pathophysiological properties and summarizes the role of MPO as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for a number of cardiovascular pathologies.