Epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the United States, 2000-2009

Resuscitation. 2013 Sep;84(9):1255-60. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.02.021. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Abstract

Aim: To examine temporal trends in the epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recipients at a population level.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of temporal trends in CPR incidence, survival to discharge, discharge disposition, hospital length of stay, and cost of hospitalization for CPR recipients (age ≥ 18 years) captured in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000-2009) in the United States.

Results: Between years 2000 and 2009, CPR incidence increased by 33.7%, from 1 case per 453 to 1 case per 339 hospitalized patients (annual percentage increase: 4.3%, 95% CI: 3.4-5.2%, p<0.001). Compared to CPR recipients in years 2000-2001, those in 2008-2009 were more often younger (age<65 years: 33.4% vs. 40.0%), non-white (29.3% vs. 36.4%), and higher comorbidity scores (score ≥ 4: 22.2% vs. 27.1%) (all p<0.001). Rates of neurologic compromise, mechanical ventilator, and feeding tube use increased by 37.7, 28.2, and 58.5%, respectively (all p<0.001). Adjusted rate of survival to discharge increased by 41.3% (20.6-29.1%, p<0.001). Compared to survivors in 2000, those discharged in 2009 were more often discharged to hospice (0.4% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001); a 35% decrease in discharge to home was noted (36.4% vs. 23.8%, p<0.001). Mean cost of hospitalization per day increased for both survivors ($2742-$3462, p=0.006) and decedents ($3159-$4212, p<0.001).

Conclusions: The rate of in-hospital CPR in the U.S. increased, and CPR recipients have become younger and sicker over time. Survival to discharge has improved by 41.3%. Functional outcomes after in-hospital CPR appear to have worsened, with considerable clinical and economic implications.

Keywords: CPR; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; HCUP NIS; Population outcomes; Survival; Temporal trends.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / mortality*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cause of Death
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Heart Arrest / diagnosis
  • Heart Arrest / epidemiology*
  • Heart Arrest / therapy*
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Inpatients / statistics & numerical data
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sex Distribution
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survivors / statistics & numerical data
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Young Adult