Aim: To examine temporal trends in the epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recipients at a population level.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of temporal trends in CPR incidence, survival to discharge, discharge disposition, hospital length of stay, and cost of hospitalization for CPR recipients (age ≥ 18 years) captured in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000-2009) in the United States.
Results: Between years 2000 and 2009, CPR incidence increased by 33.7%, from 1 case per 453 to 1 case per 339 hospitalized patients (annual percentage increase: 4.3%, 95% CI: 3.4-5.2%, p<0.001). Compared to CPR recipients in years 2000-2001, those in 2008-2009 were more often younger (age<65 years: 33.4% vs. 40.0%), non-white (29.3% vs. 36.4%), and higher comorbidity scores (score ≥ 4: 22.2% vs. 27.1%) (all p<0.001). Rates of neurologic compromise, mechanical ventilator, and feeding tube use increased by 37.7, 28.2, and 58.5%, respectively (all p<0.001). Adjusted rate of survival to discharge increased by 41.3% (20.6-29.1%, p<0.001). Compared to survivors in 2000, those discharged in 2009 were more often discharged to hospice (0.4% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001); a 35% decrease in discharge to home was noted (36.4% vs. 23.8%, p<0.001). Mean cost of hospitalization per day increased for both survivors ($2742-$3462, p=0.006) and decedents ($3159-$4212, p<0.001).
Conclusions: The rate of in-hospital CPR in the U.S. increased, and CPR recipients have become younger and sicker over time. Survival to discharge has improved by 41.3%. Functional outcomes after in-hospital CPR appear to have worsened, with considerable clinical and economic implications.
Keywords: CPR; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; HCUP NIS; Population outcomes; Survival; Temporal trends.
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