After the incident on the Deepwater Horizon platform, around 1.8 million gallons of dispersants were used in the field as part of the response cleanup efforts. This study describes an online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method and a direct-injection LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS; a component in Corexit® EC9500A) in seawater at trace levels, with method detection limits (MDLs) of 7.0 and 440 ng/L and run times of 7 and 17 min, respectively. Stability and preservation studies demonstrated that samples at 4.7 μg/L could be preserved for up to 150 days without loss of analyte when stored with 33 % acetonitrile in glass containers. Data acquisition was performed by heated electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS operating in negative mode. Methods were validated in terms of percent recovery in fortified blank and matrix samples and to evaluate carryover. A simple modification of the direct-injection method allowed quantitation of 2-butoxyethanol, a dispersant component specific to the Corexit® EC9527A formulation. This method was used to simultaneously quantify DOSS and 2-butoxyethanol in two Corexit® formulations and extracts from an MC-252 source oil standard. MDLs in crude oil were 0.723 and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively, with recoveries of (92 ± 9)% for DOSS and (104 ± 8)% for 2-butoxyethanol. Detection of both indicators was achieved in a single chromatographic run by ESI-MS/MS operating sequentially in positive and negative mode. Corexit® EC9500A and Corexit® EC9527A were found to contain (21 ± 2)% and (22 ± 5)% w/w DOSS and 0 and (37 ± 2)% w/w 2-butoxyethanol, respectively.