The protective effects of grape seed extract on MDA, AOPP, apoptosis and eNOS expression in testicular torsion: an experimental study

World J Urol. 2013 Jun;31(3):615-22. doi: 10.1007/s00345-013-1049-8. Epub 2013 Mar 9.


Objectives: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This study was designed to determine whether GSPE could protect against dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by torsion-detorsion injury in rat testis.

Methods: A total of 45 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham group, torsion-detorsion (T/D) group, T/D + GSPE group, GSPE group. GSPE was administrated 100 mg/kg/day with oral gavage over seven days before torsion. Testicular torsion was performed for 2 h, and afterward, detorsion was performed for 2 h. The rats were decapitated under ketamine anesthesia, and their testes tissues were removed. Tissue malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products levels, eNOS expression, apoptosis and histopathological damage scores were then compared.

Results: Testicular torsion-detorsion caused significant increases in malondialdehyde level, apoptosis and eNOS expression level and caused a significant decrease in advanced oxidation protein product levels and testicular spermatogenesis in ipsilateral testes. GSPE prevented the rise in malondialdehyde, apoptosis and eNOS expression and improved testicular morphology and Johnsen's score.

Conclusions: As a result, testicular torsion gives rise to serious damage in testes and GSPE is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing testicular injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Grape Seed Extract / pharmacology
  • Grape Seed Extract / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control
  • Spermatic Cord Torsion / metabolism*
  • Spermatic Cord Torsion / pathology
  • Testis / drug effects
  • Testis / metabolism
  • Testis / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products
  • Antioxidants
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III