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, 42 (18), 6538-52

9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone Radical Complexes of ruthenium(III), osmium(III) and rhodium(III) and Redox Series

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9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone Radical Complexes of ruthenium(III), osmium(III) and rhodium(III) and Redox Series

Manas Kumar Biswas et al. Dalton Trans.

Abstract

Reactions of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in toluene with [M(II)(PPh3)3X2] at 298 K afford green complexes, trans-[M(PQ)(PPh3)2X2] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 2) in moderate yields. Reaction of anhydrous RhCl3 with PQ and PPh3 in boiling ethanol affords the dark brown paramagnetic complex, cis-[Rh(PQ)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3) in good yields. Diffusion of iodine solution in n-hexane to the trans-[Os(PQ) (PPh3)2(CO)(Br)] solution in CH2Cl2 generates the crystals of trans-[Os(PQ)(PPh3)2(CO)(Br)](+)I3(-), (4(+))I3(-)), in lower yields. Single crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1·2toluene, 2·CH2Cl2 and 4(+)I3(-), UV-vis/NIR absorption spectra, EPR spectra of 3, electrochemical activities and DFT calculations on 1, 2, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe3)2Cl2] (1Me), trans-[Os(PQ)(PMe3)2Br2] (2Me), cis-[Rh(PQ)(PMe3)2Cl2] (3Me) and their oxidized and reduced analogues including trans-[Os(PQ)(PMe3)2(CO)(Br)](+) (4Me(+)) substantiated that 1-3 are the 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(˙-)) complexes of ruthenium(III), osmium(III) and rhodium(III) and are defined as trans/cis-[M(III)(PQ(˙-))(PPh3)2X2] with a minor contribution of the resonance form trans/cis-[M(II)(PQ)(PPh3)2X2]. Two comparatively longer C-O (1.286(4) Å) and the shorter C-C lengths (1.415(7) Å) of the OO-chelate of 1·2toluene and 2·CH2Cl2 and the isotropic fluid solution EPR signal at g = 1.999 of 3 are consistent with the existence of the reduced PQ(˙-) ligand in 1-3 complexes. Anisotropic EPR spectra of the frozen glasses (g11 = g22 = 2.0046 and g33 = 1.9874) and solids (g11 = g22 = 2.005 and g33 = 1.987) instigate the contribution of the resonance form, cis-[Rh(II)(PQ)(PPh3)2Cl2] in 3. DFT calculations established that the closed shell singlet (CSS) solutions of 1Me and 2Me are unstable due to open shell singlet (OSS) perturbation. However, the broken symmetry (BS) (1,1) Ms = 0 solutions of 1Me and 2Me are respectively 22.6 and 24.2 kJ mole(-1) lower in energy and reproduced the experimental bond parameters well prompting the coordination of PQ(˙-) to the M(III) ions. The comparatively shorter C-O lengths, 1.268(4) and 1.266(5) Å and the longer C-C length, 1.466(6) Å, are consistent with the PQ chelation to osmium(II) ion in 4(+). The reversible anodic waves at 0.22, 0.22, and 0.18 V of 1-3, referenced by the Fc(+)/Fc couple, are assigned to the PQ(˙-)/PQ couple forming PQ complexes as trans/cis-[M(III)(PQ)(PPh3)2X2](+) while the cathodic waves at -0.92 and -0.89 V of 2 and 3 are due to formations of PQ(2-) complexes as trans-[M(III)(PQ(2-))(PPh3)2X2](-). 1 displays two overlapping cathodic waves at -0.72(89), -1.0(120) V. EPR spectrum of the frozen glass of 1(-) along with DFT calculations detected the contribution of both the valence tautomers, trans-[Ru(III)(PQ(2-))(PPh3)2Cl2](-) (g1 = g2 = 2.456; g3 = 1.983) and trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(˙-))(PPh3)2X2](-) (g(iso) = 1.999) in the anion. The characteristic lower energy absorption bands of 1 and 2 at 700 nm were assigned to CSS-OSS perturbation MLCT those are absent in paramagnetic 3, 1(+), 2(+), 1(-), 2(-) and 4(+) complexes, investigated by spectro-electrochemical measurements and time dependent (TD) DFT calculations on 1Me, 2Me, 1Me(+) and 1Me(-).

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