Symptomatology and objective findings of Sjögren's syndrome were evaluated in 38 consecutive patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome were present in 18 (47.4%) patients, but were severe enough to warrant therapy in only four (10.5%). Nineteen patients consented to evaluation for Sjögren's syndrome, which included Schirmer's I test, measurement of parotid flow rate and serum autoantibodies, labial minor salivary gland biopsy and human leukocyte antigen typing. Histological changes diagnostic of Sjögren's syndrome were present in five patients (26.3%). All five patients had symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome and three had abnormal Schirmer's I tests, but none had corneal ulcerations or decreased parotid flow rates. Results of serological tests and human leukocyte antigen typing were not similar to those described in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome but were similar to those described in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that Sjögren's syndrome associated with primary biliary cirrhosis is a form of secondary Sjögren's syndrome resembling that associated with rheumatoid arthritis.