The up to 25-year survival and clinical performance of 2,340 high gold-based metal-ceramic single crowns

Int J Prosthodont. 2013 Mar-Apr;26(2):151-60. doi: 10.11607/ijp.3136.


Purpose: This study aimed to present the up to 25-year clinical performance and survival of 2,340 high gold-based metal-ceramic single crowns placed in a specialist prosthodontic practice.

Materials and methods: All crowns provided to 670 patients between 1984 and 2008 were sequentially recruited. Each crown/tooth combination was given a prognostic evaluation at cementation. Patients were recalled in 2008 and 2009 for examination, and patient records were scrutinized for any retreatment. Estimated cumulative survival, standard error, and differences in survival between groups were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, Greenwood formula, and log-rank test, respectively. Crown status (six-field classification) was reported within 5-year groupings and for 7, 10, and 12 years.

Results: The up to 10-year and 25-year estimated survival rates of the 2,211 favorably rated crowns were 97.08% ± 0.45% and 85.40% ± 2.19%, respectively. The up to 12-year survival for crowns in the postimplant era was 94.4% ± 2.78%. No significant differences related to sex, tooth type, or tooth position were demonstrated. Nonvital teeth had lower overall survival rates than vital teeth, but not in crowns placed in the postimplant era. Actual 10-year outcomes closely matched the estimated 10-year survival. Biologic factors accounted for 101 of the 133 failures, while mechanical factors accounted for 8 failures and patient concerns accounted for 24 failures. Porcelain fracture requiring replacement occurred in 4 crowns.

Conclusions: The clinical performance of the crowns was excellent. Biologic factors accounted for the majority of failures. Material stability was excellent. Patient complaints of unacceptable esthetics resulted in 22 crowns being replaced after a mean clinical service time of 14 years.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bicuspid / pathology
  • Cementation / statistics & numerical data
  • Cohort Studies
  • Crowns / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cuspid / pathology
  • Dental Porcelain / chemistry
  • Dental Prosthesis Repair / statistics & numerical data
  • Dental Restoration Failure / statistics & numerical data
  • Esthetics, Dental
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gold Alloys / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Metal Ceramic Alloys / chemistry*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tooth, Nonvital / rehabilitation
  • Young Adult


  • Gold Alloys
  • Metal Ceramic Alloys
  • Dental Porcelain