Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study)

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Mar 11;10(3):980-93. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10030980.


The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asians
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Income
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Social Class
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary