The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits

J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 10;61(14):3351-63. doi: 10.1021/jf4007032. Epub 2013 Mar 28.


The nutritional jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. The main biologically active components are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Recent phytochemical studies of jujube fruits have shed some light on their biological effects, such as the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and gastrointestinal protective activities and inhibition of foam cell formation in macrophages. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition of jujube fruits will be essential for future research efforts. This review may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses and potential drug or food interactions and may be beneficial for people living where the jujube fruits are prevalent and health care resources are scarce.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Flavonoids / therapeutic use
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Functional Food / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Phytochemicals / analysis*
  • Phytochemicals / therapeutic use
  • Triterpenes / analysis
  • Triterpenes / therapeutic use
  • Ziziphus / chemistry*


  • Flavonoids
  • Phytochemicals
  • Triterpenes