Effects of promoting longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

JAMA. 2013 Mar 13;309(10):1005-13. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.167.


Importance: Evidence that longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding.

Objective: To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which regulates growth.

Design, setting, and participants: Cluster-randomized controlled trial in 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated clinics, randomized into 1 of 2 groups: breastfeeding promotion intervention (n = 16) or usual practices (n = 15). Participants were 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996 and 1997, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years.

Intervention: Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund).

Main outcome measures: Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals and clinics.

Results: The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity when compared with the control (43% vs 6% exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 7.9% vs 0.6% at 6 months). Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years of age between experimental vs control groups were: 0.19 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 (-0.03 to 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 (-0.11 to 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (-0.11% to 1.05%) for percent body fat; 0.30 cm (-1.41 to 2.01) for waist circumference; -0.07 mm (-1.71 to 1.57) for triceps and -0.02 mm (-0.79 to 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and -0.02 standard deviations (-0.12 to 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th vs <85th percentile) was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.39) and for obesity (BMI ≥ 95th vs <85th percentile) was 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.41).

Conclusions: AND RELEVANCE Among healthy term infants in Belarus, an intervention that succeeded in improving the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding did not prevent overweight or obesity, nor did it affect IGF-I levels at age 11.5 years. Breastfeeding has many advantages but population strategies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding are unlikely to curb the obesity epidemic.

Trial registration: isrctn.org: ISRCTN37687716; and clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01561612.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity*
  • Adult
  • Breast Feeding*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Promotion
  • Hospitals, Maternity
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Overweight / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy
  • Republic of Belarus
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01561612
  • ISRCTN/ISRCTN37687716