Objectives: To determine the most effective first-line rescue therapy for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) nonresponders, using IVIG, prednisolone, or both, to prevent coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs).
Study design: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 359 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease who failed to respond to initial IVIG.
Results: CAAs up to 1 month after treatment were less common in the IVIG+prednisolone group (15.9%) than in the IVIG group (28.7%, P = .005) and the prednisolone group (30.6%, P = .01). The IVIG+prednisolone group had significantly lower risks of failing to respond to first-line rescue therapy (aOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.31), CAAs up to 1 month (aOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.90), and CAAs at 1 month (aOR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.91) than the IVIG group. In the prednisolone and IVIG+prednisolone groups, risk score, day of illness at first-line rescue therapy, prednisolone monotherapy, and resistance to first-line rescue therapy were independent risk factors for CAA. Sex and resistance to first-line rescue therapy were independent risk factors in the IVIG group.
Conclusions: IVIG+prednisolone may be superior to IVIG or prednisolone as first-line rescue therapy in the treatment of IVIG nonresponders. To establish the efficacy of rescue therapy with IVIG+prednisolone following nonresponse to initial IVIG, a prospective randomized trial is warranted.
Keywords: C-reactive protein; CAA; CRP; Coronary artery abnormality; IL; IVIG; Interleukin; Intravenous immunoglobulin; KD; Kawasaki disease; Methylprednisolone; mPSL.
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