Edible vaccines against veterinary parasitic diseases--current status and future prospects

Vaccine. 2013 Apr 8;31(15):1879-85. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.022. Epub 2013 Feb 26.


Protection of domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major challenge in most of the developing countries, especially in the surge of drug resistant strains. In this circumstance vaccination seems to be the sole practical strategy to combat parasites. Most of the presently available live or killed parasitic vaccines possess many disadvantages. Thus, expression of parasitic antigens has seen a continued interest over the past few decades. However, only a limited success was achieved using bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems. This is witnessed by an increasing number of reports on transgenic plant expression of previously reported and new antigens. Oral delivery of plant-made vaccines is particularly attractive due to their exceptional advantages. Moreover, the regulatory burden for veterinary vaccines is less compared to human vaccines. This led to an incredible investment in the field of transgenic plant vaccines for veterinary purpose. Plant based vaccine trials have been conducted to combat various significant parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, schistosomosis, poultry coccidiosis, porcine cycticercosis and ascariosis. Besides, passive immunization by oral delivery of antibodies expressed in transgenic plants against poultry coccidiosis is an innovative strategy. These trials may pave way to the development of promising edible veterinary vaccines in the near future. As the existing data regarding edible parasitic vaccines are scattered, an attempt has been made to assemble the available literature.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic / immunology
  • Parasites / immunology*
  • Parasitic Diseases, Animal / immunology*
  • Parasitic Diseases, Animal / parasitology
  • Parasitic Diseases, Animal / prevention & control*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Protozoan Vaccines / genetics
  • Protozoan Vaccines / immunology*
  • Vaccination / veterinary
  • Vaccines, Edible / genetics
  • Vaccines, Edible / immunology*


  • Protozoan Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Edible