Objectives: The left ventricular (LV) response to combined pressure and volume overload [aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR)] versus pressure overload (isolated AS)has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess LV remodeling, functional and hemodynamic consequences inpatients with mixed aortic valve disease versus patients with isolated AS.
Methods: We enrolled 181 patients (67 ± 9 years,109 men) with severe AS (aortic valve area indexed to body surface area <0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ) who underwent preoperative cardiac catheterization and a complete echocardiogram. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured.
Results: One hundred and ten patients (group A)had isolated severe AS (AR 0–1) and 71 patients (group B)had mixed aortic valve disease (severe AS plus AR 2–3). Patients in group B were younger and in a higher New York Heart Association class (p < 0.01). Severity of AS was similar in both groups. Patients in group B had a higher indexed LV mass, a lower LV ejection fraction, and higher PCWP, LVED Pand PAP (all p ≤ 0.01).
Conclusions: Patients with severe AS and significant AR are more symptomatic than patients with isolated severe AS. The increased burden due to the combined lesion induces pronounced LV remodeling and more severe hemodynamic consequences.