The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):57-63. doi: 10.1038/nature12031. Epub 2013 Mar 13.


Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • Cestoda / drug effects
  • Cestoda / genetics*
  • Cestoda / physiology
  • Cestode Infections / drug therapy
  • Cestode Infections / metabolism
  • Conserved Sequence / genetics
  • Echinococcus granulosus / genetics
  • Echinococcus multilocularis / drug effects
  • Echinococcus multilocularis / genetics
  • Echinococcus multilocularis / metabolism
  • Genes, Helminth / genetics
  • Genes, Homeobox / genetics
  • Genome, Helminth / genetics*
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hymenolepis / genetics
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways / genetics
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Parasites / drug effects
  • Parasites / genetics*
  • Parasites / physiology
  • Proteome / genetics
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Taenia solium / genetics


  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Proteome