Betrixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: results of a phase 2, randomized, dose-ranging study (Explore-Xa)

Eur Heart J. 2013 May;34(20):1498-505. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht039. Epub 2013 Mar 13.


Aims: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of stroke. Betrixaban is a novel oral factor Xa inhibitor administered once daily, mostly excreted unchanged in the bile and with low (17%) renal excretion.

Methods and results: Patients with AF and more than one risk factor for stroke were randomized to one of three blinded doses of betrixaban (40, 60, or 80 mg once daily) or unblinded warfarin, adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The primary outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. The mean follow-up was 147 days. Among 508 patients randomized, the mean CHADS2 score was 2.2; 87% of patients had previously received vitamin K antagonist therapy. The time in therapeutic range on warfarin was 63.4%. There were one, five, five, and seven patients with a primary outcome on betrixaban 40, 60, 80 mg daily, or warfarin, respectively. The rate of the primary outcome was lowest on betrixaban 40 mg (hazard ratio compared with warfarin = 0.14, exact stratified log-rank P-value 0.04, unadjusted for multiple testing). Rates of the primary outcome with betrixaban 60 or 80 mg were more similar to those of wafarin. Two ischaemic strokes occurred, one each on betrixaban 60 and 80 mg daily. There were two vascular deaths, one each on betrixaban 40 mg and warfarin. Betrixaban was associated with higher rates of diarrhoea than warfarin.

Conclusion: Betrixaban was well tolerated and had similar or lower rates of bleeding compared with well-controlled warfarin in patients with AF at risk for stroke.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Betrixaban; Stroke.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage*
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacokinetics
  • Atrial Fibrillation / complications*
  • Benzamides / administration & dosage*
  • Benzamides / pharmacokinetics
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products / metabolism
  • Hemorrhage / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pyridines / administration & dosage*
  • Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • Stroke / prevention & control*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Warfarin / administration & dosage*
  • Warfarin / pharmacokinetics


  • Anticoagulants
  • Benzamides
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • Pyridines
  • fibrin fragment D
  • Warfarin
  • betrixaban