Objective: To determine whether women with a history of surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are at an increased risk of subfertility, measured as a time to pregnancy of more than 12 months.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: Iowa Health in Pregnancy Study (IHIPS), a population-based case-control study of preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) live birth outcomes (from May 2002 through June 2005) in the USA.
Sample: Women with an intended pregnancy and a history of either one prior cervical surgery (n = 152), colposcopy only (n = 151), or no prior cervical surgery or colposcopy (n = 1021).
Methods: Cervical treatment history, pregnancy intention, time to pregnancy, and other variables were self-reported by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression to estimate the risk of prolonged time to pregnancy among women with a history of cervical surgery or colposcopy alone, compared with untreated women (control group).
Main outcome measure: Prolonged time to pregnancy (i.e. >1 year).
Results: Prolonged time to pregnancy was most prevalent among treated women (16.4%), compared with untreated women (8.4%) and women with colposcopy only (8.6%) (P = 0.039). After adjusting for covariates, women with prior cervical surgery had a more than two-fold higher risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared with untreated women (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26-3.46). In contrast, women with a history of colposcopy only had a risk equivalent to that found among untreated women (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.56-1.89).
Conclusions: Women with a history of cervical treatment for CIN are at increased risk of subfertility, measured as a time to pregnancy of more than 12 months.
© 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.