Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

Ital J Pediatr. 2013 Mar 14:39:18. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-18.


Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Allergic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic* / diagnosis
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic* / drug therapy
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic* / immunology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Histamine Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Keratoconjunctivitis* / diagnosis
  • Keratoconjunctivitis* / drug therapy
  • Keratoconjunctivitis* / immunology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Allergic Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Histamine Antagonists