Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors affected the implementation of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) program in 290 Swedish municipalities and whether the amount of such factors influenced the level of implementation of the program.
Methods: This study used variation in the presence of implementation-promoting factors to predict the level of implementation of the RBS program in municipalities throughout Sweden. The presence of such factors and the level of implementation of the program were studied by means of two surveys in all Swedish municipalities (N=290). Logistic regression and Spearman's correlation analyses were used to analyze the relationship between implementation-promoting factors and the level of implementation of the RBS program.
Results: The response rates of the two surveys were 96% and 98%, respectively. One main finding was that program fidelity was low. Only 13% of the municipalities surveyed had implemented the RBS program as a whole, as stated in the specification of requirements. In municipalities reporting a higher amount of implementation-promoting factors, a significantly higher level of implementation of the program was shown. Evaluation and feedback was the only factor that correlated significantly with the level of implementation of the RBS program as a whole.
Conclusion: Evaluation and feedback constitutes an important implementation-promoting factor also in complex programs like the RBS program. Program fidelity is significant for the outcome of an intervention and must be a major focus of the implementation processes.