Self-management for people with chronic diseases is now widely recognized as an essential part of treatment. Despite the high expectations and the growing body of evidence in terms of its effectiveness, a wide application of self-management programs is inhibited due to several challenges. Worldwide, a variety of complex and multifactorial interventions have been evaluated in very heterogeneous patient populations leaving healthcare professionals in doubt about what works best and what works in whom. In this letter to the editor the authors systematically reflect on the current evidence of patient-specific determinants of success of self-management and argument the urge for increased scientific efforts to establish tailored self-management in patients with chronic disease.
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