Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) was originally described as an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism with pyramidal degeneration and dementia. ATP13A2 was identified as the causative gene in KRS. ATP13A2 encodes the ATP13A2 protein, which is a lysosomal type5 P-type ATPase, and ATP13A2 mutations are linked to autosomal recessive familial parkinsonism. Here, we report that normal ATP13A2 localizes in the lysosome, whereas disease-associated variants remain in the endoplasmic reticulum. Cathepsin D activity was decreased in ATP13A2-knockdown cells that displayed lysosome-like bodies characterized by fingerprint-like structures. Furthermore, an atp13a2 mutation in medaka fish resulted in dopaminergic neuronal death, decreased cathepsin D activity, and fingerprint-like structures in the brain. Based on these results, lysosome abnormality is very likely to be the primary cause of KRS/PARK9.
Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.