Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013 Dec;107:117-26. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Abstract

Most omnivorous animals, including humans, have to some degree relied on physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from food. Only some taxa of microalgae, rather than higher plants can synthesize de novo high amounts of EPA and DHA. Once synthesized by microalgae, PUFA are transferred through trophic chain to organisms of higher levels. Thus, aquatic ecosystems play the unique role in the Biosphere as the principal source of EPA and DHA for most omnivorous animals, including inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems. PUFA are transferred from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through riparian predators, drift of carrion and seaweeds, emergence of amphibiotic insects, and water birds. The essential PUFA are transferred through trophic chains with about twice higher efficiency than bulk carbon. Thereby, PUFA are accumulated, rather than diluted in biomass of organisms of higher trophic levels, e.g., in fish. Mankind is faced with a severe deficiency of EPA and DHA in diet. Although additional sources of PUFA supply for humans, such as aquaculture, biotechnology of microorganisms and transgenic terrestrial oil-seed producing plants are developed, natural fish production of aquatic ecosystems will remain one of the main sources of EPA and DHA for humans. Aquatic ecosystems have to be protected from anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, pollution and warming, which reduce PUFA production.

Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Trophic transfer efficiency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aquaculture
  • Aquatic Organisms / metabolism
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / biosynthesis*
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / biosynthesis*
  • Food Chain*
  • Humans
  • Microalgae / metabolism

Substances

  • Docosahexaenoic Acids
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid