PTSD symptoms associated with the experiences of psychosis and hospitalisation: a review of the literature

Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Jun;33(4):526-38. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.011. Epub 2013 Feb 4.


There is evidence of high rates of PTSD in people with psychosis, but the influence that symptoms or hospitalisation have on PTSD in individuals with psychosis is less clear. This paper reviewed studies investigating the prevalence of PTSD induced as a result of the experience of psychosis and hospitalisation and factors that might influence its development. The review included 24 studies, published between 1980 and 2011. Studies showed high levels of PTSD resulting from the trauma of symptoms and/or hospitalisation, with prevalence rates for actual PTSD resulting from these traumas varying from 11% to 67%. In line with studies of PTSD related to other traumatic events, there were inconsistent associations between PTSD and severity of positive and negative symptoms, but there were consistent associations between affective symptoms and PTSD. There were also inconsistent associations between hospital experiences and PTSD. Consistent with the general PTSD literature, there was some evidence that psychosis-related PTSD was associated with trauma history. There was also some emerging evidence that psychological variables, such as appraisals and coping style may influence psychosis-related PTSD. The review highlights the need for further research into psychological mechanisms that could increase vulnerability to psychosis-related PTSD and treatment approaches.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Psychotic Disorders / complications*
  • Risk Factors
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / etiology*