Using theory to predict implementation of a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention within a practice-based research network

Res Social Adm Pharm. Nov-Dec 2013;9(6):719-30. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.01.003. Epub 2013 Mar 16.


Background: Studies have demonstrated that physician/pharmacist collaboration can improve management of chronic conditions.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between existing clinical pharmacy services within a practice-based research network (PBRN) and provider attitudes and beliefs regarding implementing a new pharmacy intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).

Methods: A validated survey was completed by one clinical pharmacist from each office. This instrument evaluated the current clinical pharmacy services provided in the medical office. TPB instruments were developed that measured beliefs concerning implementation of a clinical pharmacy intervention for either blood pressure or asthma. The pharmacy services and TPB surveys were then administered to physicians and pharmacists in 32 primary care offices throughout the United States.

Results: Physicians returned 321 (35.9%) surveys, while pharmacists returned 40 (75.5%). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients generally ranged from 0.65 to 0.98. TPB subscale scores were lower in offices rated with lower pharmacy service scores, but these differences were not statistically significant. There was no correlation between clinical pharmacy service score and providers' TPB subscale scores. In both the hypertension and asthma groups, pharmacists scores were significantly higher than physicians' scores on the attitudes subscale in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: Pharmacists consistently scored higher than physicians on the TPB, indicating that they felt the hypertension or asthma intervention would be more straightforward for them to implement than did physicians. There was no significant correlation between clinical pharmacy service scores and attitudes toward implementing a future physician/pharmacist collaborative intervention using the TPB. Future studies should investigate the ability of the TPB instrument to predict implementation of a similar intervention in offices of physicians never exposed to clinical pharmacy services.

Trial registration: NCT00935077.

Keywords: Asthma; Hypertension; Physician–pharmacist collaboration; Team-based care; Theory; Theory of planned behavior.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asthma / drug therapy
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Cooperative Behavior
  • Female
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Interprofessional Relations*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pharmacists*
  • Physicians*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

Associated data