Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

Arch Med Res. 2013 Apr;44(3):235-41. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.02.002. Epub 2013 Mar 16.


Background and aims: A number of studies have shown that polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are implicated in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive.

Methods: A meta-analysis was performed to analyze the association among the four polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) in the VDR gene and T2D susceptibility. A total of 14 articles were included in this meta-analysis.

Results: FokI polymorphism was associated with an overall significantly increased risk of T2D (f vs. F: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.41; the extreme model ff vs. FF: OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.94; the recessive model ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.25, 1.82). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between the Fok1 polymorphism and T2D in an Asian population.

Conclusions: There was no between-study heterogeneity in any of these analyses. No significant associations were observed among the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI variants andT2D risk. This meta-analysis suggests that the FokI polymorphism of the VDR gene could be a risk factor for T2D, especially in an Asian population.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alleles
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Publication Bias
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics*


  • Receptors, Calcitriol