Long-range assembly of DNA currently comprises both top-down and bottom-up methods. The top-down techniques consist of physical alignment of DNA and lithographic patterning to organize DNA on surfaces. The bottom-up approaches include lipid-and polymer-DNA co-assembly, the self-assembly of DNA amphiphiles, and the remarkably specific and versatile methods of DNA nanotechnology. DNA-based materials possess unprecedented molecular control and may offer innovative solutions in the fields of nanotechnology, sensing, nanomedicine, as well as optical and electronic devices. To realize the potential of these materials, a number of hurdles must be addressed. Bridging the gap between top-down fabrication and bottom-up assembly is of critical importance to the successful development of functional DNA-based technology. A profound understanding of both regimes is necessary to achieve this goal.
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