Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May;98(5):E847-55. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-3835. Epub 2013 Mar 18.


Context: The relationship between postprandial peptides at circulating physiological levels and short-term appetite control is not well understood.

Objective: The purpose of this study was first to compare the postprandial profiles of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) after isoenergetic meals differing in fat and carbohydrate content and second to examine the relationships between ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY with hunger, fullness, and energy intake.

Design: Plasma was collected before and periodically after the meals for 180 minutes, after which time ad libitum food was provided. Simultaneous ratings of hunger and fullness were tracked for 180 minutes through phases identified as early (0-60 minutes) and late (60-180 minutes) satiety.

Setting: This study was conducted at the Psychobiology and Energy Balance Research Unit, University of Leeds.

Participants: The participants were 16 healthy overweight/obese adults.

Main outcome measures: Changes in hunger and fullness and metabolic markers were indicators of the impact of the meals on satiety.

Results: Ghrelin was influenced similarly by the 2 meals [F(1, 12) = 0.658, P = .433] and was significantly associated with changes in hunger (P < .05), which in turn correlated with food intake (P < .05). GLP-1 and PYY increased more by the high-fat meal [F(1, 15) = 5.099 and F(1, 14) = 5.226, P < .05]. GLP-1 was negatively associated with hunger in the late satiety phase and with energy intake (P < .05), but the PYY profile was not associated with hunger or fullness, nor was PYY associated with food intake.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that under these conditions, these peptides respond differently to ingested nutrients. Ghrelin and GLP-1, but not PYY, were associated with short-term control of appetite over the measurement period.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite Regulation*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake*
  • England
  • Female
  • Ghrelin / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Overweight / blood
  • Peptide YY / blood*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Satiety Response


  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • GHRL protein, human
  • Ghrelin
  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1