A type I interferon (IFN) gene signature shared by systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) was used to evaluate an anti-type I IFN-α receptor (IFN-αR) monoclonal antibody, MEDI-546, in a phase I trial in SSc. MEDI-546 suppressed IFN signature in blood and skin of SSc patients in a dose-dependent manner. To bridge clinical indications to SLE, we developed a model incorporating (i) pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in SSc patients, (ii) internalization kinetics of MEDI-546/IFN-αR complex, and (iii) the different IFN signatures between SSc and SLE. Simulations predicted that i.v. administration of MEDI-546 at 300- or 1,000-mg monthly doses could suppress IFN signature in blood to levels of healthy subjects in 53 and 68% of SLE patients, respectively. An innovative approach utilizing a novel biomarker characterized the PD of MEDI-546 by modeling and simulation and allowed rapid progression of MEDI-546 from a phase I study in SSc to a randomized, multiple-dose phase II trial.