Objective: To assess how intrahepatic fat and insulin resistance relate to daily fructose and energy intake during short-term overfeeding in healthy subjects.
Design and methods: The analysis of the data collected in several studies in which fasting hepatic glucose production (HGP), hepatic insulin sensitivity index (HISI), and intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) had been measured after both 6-7 days on a weight-maintenance diet (control, C; n = 55) and 6-7 days of overfeeding with 1.5 (F1.5, n = 7), 3 (F3, n = 17), or 4 g fructose/kg/day (F4, n = 10), with 3 g glucose/kg/day (G3, n = 11), or with 30% excess energy as saturated fat (fat30%, n = 10).
Results: F3, F4, G3, and fat30% all significantly increased IHCL, respectively by 113 ± 86, 102 ± 115, 59 ± 92, and 90 ± 74% as compared to C (all P < 0.05). F4 and G3 increased HGP by 16 ± 10 and 8 ± 11% (both P < 0.05), and F3 and F4 significantly decreased HISI by 20 ± 22 and 19 ± 14% (both P < 0.01). In contrast, there was no significant effect of fat30% on HGP or HISI.
Conclusions: Short-term overfeeding with fructose or glucose decreases hepatic insulin sensitivity and increases hepatic fat content. This indicates short-term regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism by simple carbohydrates.
Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.