Vitamin D insufficiency in patients with acute hip fractures of all ages and both sexes in a sunny climate

J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Dec;27(12):e275-80. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318291f263.


Objectives: To determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with hip fractures of all ages who live in the southwest United States.

Design: Retrospective comparative study.

Setting: Two level 2 trauma centers and 2 community hospitals in San Diego, CA.

Patients/participants: Four hundred forty-eight patients who sustained a hip fracture from December 2010 to December 2011 and a control group of 1091 patients who underwent elective primary total hip or knee surgery during the same time period.

Main outcome measurements: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels.

Results: The mean 25(OH)D level for both the Hip Fracture (26.38 ng/mL) and Total Joint (29.92 ng/mL) Groups showed vitamin D insufficiency, with the Hip Fracture Group having lower levels (P < 0.05). More patients in the Hip Fracture Group were deficient or insufficient (65.8% vs. 54.0%, P < 0.05). Patients aged 71 years or older were more deficient or insufficient in the Hip Fracture Group than in the Total Joint Group (66.7% vs. 47.13%, P < 0.05). There was no difference when comparing males versus females (P > 0.05). Females in the Hip Fracture Group were more deficient or insufficient (67.3% vs. 54.3%, P < 0.05) than in the Total Joint Group.

Conclusions: The majority of patients aged 18 years or older of both sexes with hip fractures had vitamin D insufficiency and those aged 71 years or older had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than a control group of total joint patients.

Level of evidence: Prognostic level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • California / epidemiology
  • Causality
  • Climate*
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures / blood*
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Hip Fractures / surgery
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sunlight
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / surgery
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D