Non-methylene interrupted and hydroxy fatty acids in polar lipids of the alga Grateloupia turuturu over the four seasons

Lipids. 2013 May;48(5):535-45. doi: 10.1007/s11745-013-3783-5. Epub 2013 Mar 21.


Phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL) FA in the edible Rhodophyta Grateloupia turuturu, from Brittany, France, were investigated over four seasons. The major lipid class was GL in all seasons (around 45 %). More than 80 FA occurred in polar lipids, with chains from C12 to C26, identified as methyl esters and N-acyl pyrrolidides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PUFA occurred at up to 47.1 % (summer) in PL, and up to 43.6 % (summer) in GL. The major PUFA were 20:5n-3 (12.2 % in PL and 29.0 % in GL) and 20:4n-6 (25.6 % in PL and 10.4 % in GL). The unusual 18:3n-7 acid was identified in PL up to 2.2 %. Several minor unsaturated FA were identified in PL and are previously unreported in seaweeds, namely 14-tricosenoic, 15-tetracosenoic, 5,11-octadecadienoic and 5,9-nonadecadienoic. Also unprecedented in seaweeds, ten 2-hydroxy and three 3-hydroxy FA occurred mainly in PL, 13.9 % in spring with the 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid as the major one (8.1 % winter). Three n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA occurred in PL. The 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid was characterized as the dimethyl disulfide adduct of its methyl ester. The 2-hydroxy-16-pentacosenoic and 2-hydroxy-17-hexacosenoic acids were identified by comparison of mass spectra and GC mobilities with those of the 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid, and of other homogeneous FA series. These rare n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA are unprecedented in seaweeds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Fatty Acids / analysis*
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / analysis
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Hydroxylation
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Lipids / analysis*
  • Phospholipids / analysis
  • Phospholipids / metabolism
  • Rhodophyta / chemistry
  • Rhodophyta / metabolism*
  • Seasons
  • Seaweed / chemistry
  • Seaweed / metabolism*


  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Lipids
  • Phospholipids