A structured, group-based diabetes self-management education (DSME) programme for people, families and whanau with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in New Zealand: an observational study

Prim Care Diabetes. 2013 Jul;7(2):151-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2013.02.002. Epub 2013 Mar 19.


Background: Group-based diabetes self-management education (DSME) programmes have been shown to be effective. A programme tailored for the unique social and ethnic environment of New Zealand (NZ) was developed using concepts from internationally developed programmes.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of a 6 week New Zealand specific DSME programme.

Methods: In this observational study people with type 2 diabetes (aged 18-80 years) from diverse cultural backgrounds were recruited from primary care. Seventeen groups of six education sessions were run. Clinical data were collected from primary care at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on diabetes knowledge, and self-management behaviours.

Results: 107 participants, mean age 56.7±11.3 years and mean duration of diabetes 7.5±7 years (NZ European (44%), Maori (24%), Pacific (16%) and Indian (16%)), were enrolled. Confidence in self-managing diabetes, regular examination of feet, physical activity levels and smoking rates all improved. Glycaemic control improved between baseline and 6 months (HbA1C 64.9±20.0 mmol/mol to 59.9±13.9 mmol/mol (p<0.05) (baseline 8.07%±1.80, 6 months 7.62%±1.25)), but was no different to baseline at 9 months. Systolic BP reduced from 131.9±16.4 to 127.4±18.2 mmHg (p<0.05) at 6 months, but increased to baseline levels by 9 months. Diastolic BP, triglycerides and urine microalbumin:creatinine ratio were significantly reduced at 3, 6 and 9 months.

Conclusion: A group-based DSME programme designed specifically for the NZ population was effective at improving aspects of diabetes care at 6 months. The attenuation of these improvements after 6 months suggests a refresher course at that time may be beneficial.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cultural Characteristics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Family Relations / ethnology
  • Female
  • Group Processes*
  • Health Behavior* / ethnology
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice* / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Life Style / ethnology
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander* / psychology
  • New Zealand / epidemiology
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Self Care* / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome