The Waxy Monkey Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagei, has been extensively-studied for many years, and a broad spectrum of bioactive peptides has been found in its skin secretions. Here we report the discovery of a novel tryptophyllin (TPH) peptide, named PsT-1, from this frog species. Skin secretions from specimens of P. sauvagei were collected by mild electrical stimulation. Peptides were identified and characterized by transcriptome cloning, and the structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and automated Edman degradation. This novel peptide was encoded by a single precursor of 61 amino acid residues, whose primary structure was deduced from cloned skin cDNA. Analysis of different amphibian tryptophyllins revealed that PsT-1 exhibited a high degree of primary structural similarity to its homologs, PdT-1 and PdT-2, from the Mexican giant leaf frog, Pachymedusa dacnicolor. A synthetic replicate of PsT-1 was found to inhibit bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation of phenylephrine pre-constricted rat tail artery smooth muscle. It was also found that PsT-1 had an anti-proliferative effect on three different human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP/PC3/DU145), by use of an MTT assay coupled with direct cell counting as measures of cell growth. These data indicate that PsT-1 is a likely bradykinin receptor antagonist and its biological effects are probably mediated through bradykinin receptors. As a BK antagonist, PST-1, with antagonistic effects on BK in artery smooth muscle, inhibition of proliferation in prostate cancer cells and lack of undesirable side effects, may have potential in cardiovascular, inflammatory and anticancer therapy.
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