Antagonism by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against the suppression by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells on macrophage

Phytother Res. 2014 Feb;28(2):200-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4980. Epub 2013 Mar 21.


It is well-documented that macrophages have the functions to regulate antitumor immune response. Antitumor response can be launched by a series of events, starting with inflammation mediated by monocyte/macrophages, which stimulates natural killer and dendritic cells and finally activates the cytotoxic lymphoid system. Monocytes/macrophages may be the first line of defense in tumors. However, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy for human cancer has shown no success or limited success in clinical trials. Part of the reasons attribute to tumor-derived soluble factors that suppress functions of immune cells or induce apoptosis of these cells, including macrophages. Therefore, antagonism of the suppression on the macrophages is an important goal for tumor immunotherapy. To achieve this purpose, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities were used on mouse peritoneal macrophages incubating with culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS). It was shown that the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-α production and activity in peritoneal macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by B16F10-CS, while the suppressions were fully or partially antagonized by Gl-PS. In conclusion, B16F10-CS is suppressive to the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-α production and activity in peritoneal macrophages while Gl-PS had the antagonistic effects against this suppression, suggesting this potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides; immunosuppression; macrophage; phagocytosis; tumor; tumor necrosis factor α.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Survival
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Culture Media / chemistry*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Melanoma, Experimental / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Culture Media
  • Polysaccharides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nitric Oxide