Patient-reported adherence to insulin regimen is associated with glycemic control among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Distress and Care Registry at Tenri (DDCRT 3)

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 May;100(2):189-94. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.03.006. Epub 2013 Mar 21.


Aims: We investigated the association between self-reported adherence to an insulin regimen and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Data from 1441 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with insulin were obtained from a diabetes registry in Japan. We obtained information on self-reported adherence to an insulin regimen. Relative risk regression analysis was employed to assess the independent association of various demographic factors with good glycemic control (HbA1c<7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) while adjusting for possible confounders.

Results: The mean age, body mass index, and number of daily insulin injections of participants were 65.4 years, 24.7 kg/m(2), and 2.3, respectively. Of all patients, 70.6% reported high adherence to their insulin regimen. Compared with participants with higher adherence, the crude relative risk of good glycemic control was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.67-1.00) for those with middle adherence and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.31-1.31) for those with lower adherence (P=0.029 for trend). Subgroup analysis confirmed this association in patients below 65 years old, but not in those 65 years old and over.

Conclusions: A higher adherence to a daily insulin regimen was associated with a greater likelihood of good glycemic control in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. This association was not seen in patients of 65 years old or over. Self-reported adherence to an insulin regimen may prove useful in titrating insulin dose in patients in the younger age group, but requires further investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin