Corneal thickness measured by Scheimpflug imaging in children with Down syndrome

J AAPOS. 2013 Apr;17(2):149-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.10.020. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Abstract

Purpose: To measure corneal thickness via the use of a Scheimpflug imaging system (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) in children with Down syndrome.

Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized, clinical trial included children with Down syndrome and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects received a complete ophthalmologic examination. Corneal topography measurements were acquired by means of Scheimpflug imaging. Central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest point of cornea (TP), and corneal volume (CV) were analyzed.

Results: A total of 27 children with Down syndrome and 37 control subjects were included in the study. In children with Down syndrome, the mean CCT was 494.27 ± 47 μm, the mean TP was 487 ± 49 μm, and the mean CV was 56.2 ± 6. In the controls, the mean CCT was 539.3 ± 40 μm, the mean TP was 538.0 ± 40.8 μm, and the mean CV was 61.3 ± 4. For all 3 parameters, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). In the Down syndrome group, the CCT was <500 μm in 16 subjects (59.2%) and <450 μm in 5 (18.5%). In the control group, the CCT was <500 μm in 14 subjects (37.8%) and <450 μm in 2 (5.4%).

Conclusions: In this study, corneal thickness was less in children with Down syndrome than in healthy control subjects. Decreased corneal thickness may be an early sign of a degenerative corneal disease such as keratoconus in children with Down syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cornea / pathology*
  • Corneal Pachymetry / methods*
  • Corneal Topography / methods
  • Down Syndrome / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies