Genetic approaches have shown that several genes could modify caries susceptibility; AmelogeninX (AMELX) has been repeatedly designated. Here, we hypothesized that AMELX mutations resulting in discrete changes of enamel microstructure may be found in children with a severe caries phenotype. In parallel, possible AMELX mutations that could explain resistance to caries may be found in caries-free patients. In this study, coding exons of AMELX and exon-intron boundaries were sequenced in 399 individuals with extensive caries (250) or caries-free (149) individuals from nine French hospital groups. No mutation responsible for a direct change of amelogenin function was identified. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found, 3 presenting a high allele frequency, and 1 being detected for the first time. Three SNPs were located in coding regions, 2 of them being non-synonymous. Both evolutionary and statistical analyses showed that none of these SNPs was associated with caries susceptibility, suggesting that AMELX is not a gene candidate in our studied population.